By B. Marik. Dallas Theological Seminary.
The comparative morphological studies on both the vegetative and reproductive parts and the anatomical studies on the leaves buy kamagra polo 100 mg with amex, stems and fruits have been made purchase kamagra polo 100mg without prescription. The morphological and anatomical characters of the four species studied buy kamagra polo 100 mg low price, namely Annona cherimolia Mill. It is annual of perennial herbs, growing wild in various part of Myanmar, particularly in hilly regions of Shan, Kachin, Chin, Kayah States, Mandalay and Sagaing Divisions. They were very similar to the botanical name of both Indian and European medicinal plant of Swertia chirayita Roxb. Due to the differents in vernacular name and similarity in the common features and the medicinal value. The morphology of these 10 plants specimens from various parts was carefully studied. Comparative study on effect of Myanmar traditional medicine paste and wax-bath physiotherapy in treatment of osteoarthritis knee in female patients. Female osteoarthritis cases are common clinical problem in Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, treated by several conservative methods with varying degree of effectiveness. Topical therapy has the obvious advantages of being simple to apply, non-invasive and self-administer by the patient. Among topical medicine, Myanmar traditional medicine paste (Ahtoo-lane-hsay) is a commonly used traditional medicine for arthritis in Myanmar Traditional Medicine Hospital since 1976. Although it is said to be effective in osteoarthritis, there has been no scientific study as yet. To determine the effectiveness of Myanmar Traditional Medicine Paste in treatment of osteoarthritis knee; in female patients. A prospective hospital based randomized controlled clinical study was carried out in (110) female osteoarthritis patients who attended the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, No. Pain, range of movement, muscle power, stiffness and knee functional capacity and quality of life were assessed by appropriate scoring methods in both groups initially and then periodically reassessed up to 3 months. Cinoared to the baseline, both groups showed significant improvement in all measurements, more obvious in first 4 weeks. Myanmar Traditional Medicine paste (Ahtoo-lane-hsay) has significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in osteoarthritis knee cases. It can be recommended as an effective, safe, and easy to administer inexpensive alternative therapy for osteoarthritis knee effects of long term analgesic therapy. Comparative study on quantitative determination of eugenol in the essential oil of Piper betle Linn. The physical properties such as moisture, total nitrogen content, total alcohol soluble matter, total water soluble matter and microchemical tests on alcohol and water soluble matters were determined. The yield percent were determined depending on the method and quality of betel leaf. The physicochemical characteristics were determined by standard methods of analysis for vegetable oil and fats. The elemental contents of betel leaf were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The betel leaf decoction was prepared according to the procedures usually used by traditional practitioners. The type of sugars, the amount of free reducing sugars and the amount of minerals of the betel leaf decoction were determined. The comparison between the betel leaf decoction and the oral rehydration salt solution was also determined. The present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-plaque properties of Ixora coccinea Linn. The present study was performed on sixty young subjects with chronic gingivitis at the Institute of Nursing, Yangon. All subjects were randomly divided into two equal groups with equal sex distribution. Clinical examination and recording of the scores was obtained weekly up to one month. Mean scores of gingival inflammation, bleeding on probing and plaque accumulation were significantly reduced in both groups. Cultural beliefs and traditional medicine utilization in Myanmar: A model assessment. Thaw Zin; Sein Win; Khin Chit; Tin Mg Lay; Kyi Kyi; Moe Moe Aye; Myint Thuzar Thant; Mya Mya Moe. Four cultural models are recognized, cultural deficit, cultural conflict, mainstream conformity and cultural distrust models, to exist in a population having different behaviour towards available health care services. To understand the influence of cultural characteristics on traditional medicine utilization, 2 areas; Yangon Division having the least culture beliefs’ influence, and Southern Shan state having diverse ethnic minorities, different culture beliefs and healing practices were compared. However, the majourity of minor ailments encountered were successfully taken care of with available health care facilities, whether it is allopathic or traditional. The main influencing model was the mainstream conformity model where deep-rooted beliefs in indigenous practices existed, followed by cultural deficit model where lack of knowledge on a health care system and medicine (21. Proper health education, exchange of knowledge between different cultures and involvement of ethnic minorities as health providers within the existing health system may help resolve these differences. The chloroform and alcohol extracts of Desmodium triquetrum and Acorus calamus and the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of Alpinia galanga contain flavonoids. These are possibly the active principles responsible for their anti-bacterial activity. Khin Tar Yar Myint; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Win Myint; May Aye Than; Aye Than; Win Win Maw; Thandar Myint. Medicinal plants and herbal drugs are being more utilized for health purposes throughout the world, nowadays.
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Non- integrating vectors such as artiﬁcial chromosomes need to be further developed discount kamagra polo 100mg line, and techniques using antisense strategies and ribozymes need to be enhanced buy kamagra polo 100mg on line. Studies are needed detailing gene expression that encompass regulatory elements both up- regulating and down-regulating gene expression cheap kamagra polo 100 mg. For instance, are we interested in survival as the only endpoint or is quality of life important as well? Thus, the ﬁeld of gene therapy is in a growing phase where further advances will have a profound effect on our current understanding of mole- cular medicine. Phase I clini- cal trials will determine toxicity and efﬁcacy in experimental systems. Thus, “gene therapy agents” that lower transcription of the gene for 5-a-reductase (which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone) might be developed to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia, for example, and later used to treat baldness. Speciﬁcally, for the case of “genetic enhancement” such as the case of baldness, ethical issues will be part of the equation in weighing risks vs. The targets of many current phase I therapies are genetic lesions causing disease in children and young adults. Successful gene therapy in these cases will save lives but not necessarily increase life expectancy or longevity. If gene therapies are to produce major increases in longevity, they will have to target diseases of the elderly, but which diseases? The holy grail of gene therapy would be to identify a transgene that modiﬁes the biological clock and the aging process. The incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, obesity, osteoporosis, dementia, and arthritis all increase with age. One approach to reducing the morbidity and mortality resulting from these condi- tions is to understand the biochemical pathways leading to each pathology in the context of aging and then develop interventions—using components of gene therapy. Longevity appears to be a polygenic characteristic to which individual genes make signiﬁcant contri- butions. In a variety of biological systems, extended longevity is associated with enhanced ability to minimize oxidative stress. However, the ﬁrst step in developing human gene therapies to delay aging will be to identify “longevity genes” in humans and other species. Screening of mutants with long life spans allowed the ﬁrst longevity gene in nematodes, age-1, to be identiﬁed. Mutations in the clock genes lengthen the life of the worm from 9 days to almost 2 months. Clock genes are thought to set an internal pacemaker by regulating genes involved in metabolism. When clock gene mutations are combined with a mutation in daf-2 (a member of a different set of genes, which also affects nematode life span) worms, living at a leisurely pace, survive more than ﬁve times longer than normal. The human homologs of daf-2 are the insulin and insulinlike growth factor receptors, indicating that aspects of the regulatory system are evolutionarily conserved. In the fruit ﬂy, the link between longevity and resistance to oxidative stress has been shown. Oxidative stress is considered to be a major cause of age-associated loss of function in many biological systems. The concept that oxidative damage normally reduces longevity in ﬂies is supported by the ﬁnding that one group of long-lived ﬂies is resistant to oxidative stress. Such transgenic Drosophila experience a 30% increase in mean and maximum life spans. Signiﬁcantly, this increase occurs despite greater physical activity and oxygen consumption by the transgenic ﬂies. Other Drosophila studies suggest that there are multiple mechanisms of aging and more than one route to extended longevity. Caloric restriction is the only widely validated method for extending the life span and postponing senescence in mammals. Caloric restriction apparently triggers responses that protect against stress, especially oxidative stress. While severe caloric restriction would not be palatable to most patients, studies of gene expression proﬁles in animals on very low calorie diets may identify pathways whose up- or down-regulation will enhance longevity. In addition to studies of food-deprived animals, studies of mice (and men) who out-live their brethren will help to identify genes associated with longevity. Some of the strongest evi- dence that animal senescence can be modulated by the action of genes comes from studies of queen ants. In ant species with social structures that protect the queens from “external causes” of death, the queens live up to 30 years, while those of species that provide less protection have genetic constitutions that give them much shorter life spans. Since the queens in both groups are similar in overall physiology and metabolism, the difference appears to arise because the protected queens occupy a niche in which longevity confers a selective advantage. Finally, aging research has also focused on modifying the telomeric regions of chromosomes to add “time” to the cellular life span. In 1991, it was reported that the tips of chromosomes in cells shortened as a cell replicated. Thus, cells replicated approximately 50 times to the so-called Hayﬂick limit, which was established by the length of the telomeric region. Recent studies have reported the activation of the enzyme called telomerase, which extended telomeric regions and lengthened the life span of cells in vitro by at least 20 cell divisions beyond the Hayﬂict limit. Thus, it is conceiveable to suggest the successful transfection and expression of the telom- erase gene may promote the life span of individual cells in gene therapy protocols. An alternative approach would be the reconstitution of the telomers of embryonic stem cells. This approach would suggest that target cells used in gene therapy could have extended life spans.