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Aspecten van de chemische ruimte order super avana 160 mg with amex, zowel de reëele als de virtuele generic super avana 160mg without a prescription, werden toegelicht generic super avana 160 mg amex. In hoofdstuk 2 wordt een aantal computationele strategieën bekeken voor het splitsen van moleculen in sets van atomen, resulterend in fragmenten van verschillende aard. De reden voor het doen van dergelijke, vaak computationeel intensieve, experimenten is de overvloed aan informatie die dergelijke analyses oplevert. Virtuele en bestaande collecties van chemische moleculen kunnen geanalyseerd worden op diversiteit en / of gelijkenis. Verder kunnen de aanwezigheid of gekoppelde aanwezigheid van fragmenten nieuwe richtingen suggereren voor het bewandelen van de chemische ruimte. Fragmenten die mogelijk gekoppeld zijn aan bijwerkingen kunnen ook worden geïdentificeerd. Dit kan de geneesmiddelenonderzoeker helpen met het ontwerpen van veiliger of meer selectieve kandidaatgeneesmiddelen. Omgekeerd kunnen ook de gewenste activiteiten worden gekoppeld aan fragmenten, wat weer een beslissende factor kan zijn in een farmacochemisch traject. Geneesmiddelenontwerp gebaseerd op regels en/of kennis zal daar zeker van profiteren. In de meeste gevallen resulteerde het gebruik van speciale chemische representaties tot de meest significante substructuren. Substructuren die kenmerkend zijn voor de controleset weerspiegelen reacties die waarschijnlijk zijn gebruikt om deze set te maken. In hoofdstuk 4 hebben we de sequentie-gebaseerde classificatie van receptoren vergeleken met een ligand-gebaseerde classificatie van dezelfde groep van receptoren. Tegelijkertijd hebben we de mogelijkheid onderzocht om sequentieovereenkomst te gebruiken als voorspeller voor ligand-interacties, iets dat de zoektocht naar liganden voor wees-receptoren ten goede komt. Receptoren werden hiërarchisch ingedeeld in fylogenetische bomen, voor zowel de sequentie ruimte als de ligand (substructuur) ruimte. De algemene organisatie van de sequentie-gebaseerde boom en substructuur-gebaseerde boom was vergelijkbaar. Het beste model (statistisch gezien) werd vervolgens op grote schaal toegepast voor virtuele screening van een chemische bibliotheek van een commerciële leverancier. Deze hit rate is ongeveer vergelijkbaar met recente target-gebaseerde virtuele screening studies, terwijl beide benaderingen nieuwe, niet-overlappende sets van liganden opleveren. Deze methode bestaat uit verschillende iteratieve cycli van structuurgeneratie, -evaluatie en -selectie. We hebben uiteindelijk een enorme collectie van 3946 unieke verbindingen gegenereerd en hebben daaruit chemische scaffolds afgeleid. Zes daarvan zijn geselecteerd voor chemische synthese en het testen op activiteit op de adenosine receptor subtypes; twee daarvan waren actief met (sub)micromolaire activiteit. Om onze evolutionaire ontwerpmethode verder te onderzoeken, hebben we systematisch modificaties uitgevoerd op een van deze twee kandidaten. In hoofdstuk 7 kwamen we tot algemene conclusies van mijn onderzoek en de toekomstperspectieven die ik voorzie. Het leidde tot het vinden van actieve moleculen uit databases, het verkrijgen van suggesties voor de-orphanization procedures, en het stond centraal bij het geautomatiseerd ontwerpen van nieuwe chemische entiteiten, iets waarmee het zijn waarde bevestigt voor geneesmiddelenonderzoek. Chemogenomics Approaches for Receptor Deorphanization and Extensions of the Chemogenomics Concept to Phenotypic Space. Combining Aggregation with Pareto Optimization: A Case Study in Evolutionary Molecular Design. In Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. Enhancing search space diversity in multi-objective evolutionary drug molecule design using niching. Evolutionary algorithms for automated drug design towards target molecule properties. A Prospective Cross-Screening Study on G Protein- Coupled Receptors: Lessons Learned in Virtual Compound Library Design [Manuscript in preparation, joint first author] 236 Curriculum Vitae (Nederlands) Eelke van der Horst werd geboren op 12 januari 1976 te Voorburg, en groeide op in Den Haag. Na het voltooien van het voorgezet onderwijs aan de Vrije School Den Haag (in 1996), begon hij zijn studie Bio-Farmaceutische Wetenschappen aan de Universiteit van Leiden, waar hij in 2003 zijn doctoraalexamen behaalde. Hij liep zijn eerste stage bij de vakgroep medische farmacologie onder begeleiding van Dr. Zijn tweede stage vond plaats bij de vakgroep farmacochemie onder begeleiding van Dr. Hier ontwikkelde hij een programma voor het berekenen en visualiseren van oppervlakteeigenschappen van (virtuele) moleculen. Dit programma helpt farmacochemici bij het voorspellen van passief membraantransport zoals dat plaatsvindt in de darmwand en bloed-hersen barrière. Na zijn afstuderen heeft hij bij twee innovatieve softwarebedrijven gewerkt, eerst bij SemLab B. After completing secondary education at the Vrije School Den Haag in 1996, he started his study Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Leiden, where he received his M. He served his first internship at 237 Curriculum Vitae the division of medical pharmacology under the supervision of Dr. His second internship was conducted at the division of medicinal chemistry under the supervision of Dr. This application helps medicinal chemists predict passive transport over membranes such as the intestinal wall and blood-brain barrier. After his graduation, he worked at two innovative software companies, first at SemLab B.
Contraindicatons Recent myocardial infarcton purchase super avana 160 mg on-line, arrhythmias (partcularly heart block) order 160mg super avana fast delivery, not indicated in manic phase purchase super avana 160mg with amex, severe liver disease; epilepsy, mania, narrow angle glaucoma, hypersensitvity. Precautons Cardiac disease (partcularly with arrhythmias), history of epilepsy, pregnancy (Appendix 7c), lactaton, elderly, hepatc impairment, interactons (Appendix 6a), thyroid disease, pheochromocytoma, history of mania, psychoses (may aggravate psychotc symptoms), susceptbility to angle-closure glaucoma, history of urinary retenton, concurrent electroconvulsive therapy; if possible avoid abrupt withdrawal; anaesthesia (increased risk of arrhythmias and hypotension), see surgery; porphyria; for additonal nocturnal enuresis warnings; acetylsalicylic acid hypersensitvity. Individual and community programmes for relearning old skills and developing new ones and for learning to cope with the illness should be initated. Classes of antpsychotc drugs include phenothiazines (for example chlorpromazine), butyrophenones (for example haloperidol), thioxanthenes (for example fupentxol) and newer ‘atypical’ neuroleptcs including clozapine and risperidone. The various antpsychotc drugs do not, in general, difer in their antp- sychotc actvity, but difer in range and quality of adverse efects (see below). Acute Phase Treatment: The administraton of chlorpromazine or haloperidol will relieve symptoms such as thought disorder, hallucinatons and delusions and prevent relapse. However, haloperidol may restore an acutely ill schizophrenic, who was previously withdrawn, or even mute and akinetc, to normal actvity and social behaviour. In the acute phase chlorpromazine may be administered by intramuscular injecton in a dose of 25-50 mg which can be repeated every 6-8 h while observing the patent for possible hypotension. In most cases, however, the intramuscular injecton is not needed and patents can be treated with an oral dose. Maintenance Therapy: Long-term treatment in patents with a defnite diagnosis of schizophrenia may be necessary afer the frst episode to prevent the manifest illness from becoming chronic. The lowest possible dose of antpsychotc drug that will prevent major exacerbatons of forid symptoms is used for long-term management. Intramuscular depot preparatons such as fuphenazine may be used as an alternatve to oral mainte- nance therapy especially when compliance with oral treat- ment is unreliable. Exacerbatons of illness in patents on maintenance drug therapy can be precipitated by stress. Withdrawal of maintenance drug treatment requires careful surveillance since it is not possible to predict the course of the disease and the patent may sufer a relapse if treatment is withdrawn inappropriately. Further, the need for contnuaton of treatment may not be evident on withdrawal of treatment because relapse may be delayed for several weeks. Hypotension and interference with tempera- ture regulaton, neuroleptc malignant syndrome and bone- marrow depression are the most life-threatening. They can result in dangerous falls and hypothermia in the elderly and this must be considered before prescribing these drugs for patents over 70 years of age. Extrapyramidal symptoms are the most troublesome and are caused most frequently by the piperazine phenothiazines such as fuphenazine, the butyrophenones such as haloperidol and the depot preparatons. Although easily recognized, they are not so easy to predict because they depend in part on the dose and patent susceptbility as well as the type of drug. However, there is a general tendency for low-potency drugs to have less extrapyramidal adverse efects, while high-potency drugs such as haloperidol have more extrapyramidal efects but less seda- ton and antcholinergic (more correctly antmuscarinic) efects. Extrapyramidal symptoms consist of parkin- sonian-type symptoms including tremor which may occur gradually; dystonia (abnormal face and body movements) and dyskinesia, which may appear afer only a few doses; akathisia (restlessness), which may occur afer large inital doses and may resemble an exacerbaton of the conditon being treated; and tardive dyskinesia (an orofacial dyskinesia), which usually takes longer to develop but may develop on short-term treat- ment with low doses; short-lived tardive dyskinesia may occur afer withdrawal of the drug. Parkinsonian symptoms are usually reversible on withdrawal of the drug and may be suppressed by antcholinergic (antmuscarinic) drugs but they may unmask or worsen tardive dyskinesia. Tardive dyskinesia is usually associated with long-term treatment and high dosage of an antpsychotc, partcularly in elderly patents. There is no established treatment for tardive dyskinesias, which may be irreversible on withdrawing therapy. However, withdrawal at the earliest signs of tardive dyskinesia may halt its full devel- opment. Treatment of all patents on antpsychotcs must be carefully and regularly reviewed. Neuroleptc malignant syndrome (hypothermia, fuctuatng levels of consciousness, muscular rigidity, and autonomic dysfuncton with pallor, tachycardia, labile blood pressure, sweatng and urinary incontnence) is a rare adverse efect of haloperidol and chlorpromazine. It is managed by discontn- uing the antpsychotc, correctng fuid and electrolyte defects, and giving bromocriptne and sometmes dantrolene. Dose Oral Adult- Schizophrenia and other psychoses, mania, psychomotor agitaton, violent behaviour and severe anxiety (adjuvant): initally 25 mg 3 tmes daily (or 75 mg at night) adjusted to response to usual maintenance dose of 100-300 mg daily (but up to 1. Elderly or debilitated- Schizophrenia and other psychoses, mania, psychomotor agitaton, violent behaviour and severe anxiety (adjunct): one-third to one-half adult dose. Child- Schizophrenia and other psychoses, mania, psychomotor agitaton, violent behaviour and severe anxiety (adjunct); (for childhood schizophrenia and autsm) 1 to 5 years: 500 µg/kg every 4-6 h (max. Deep intramuscular injecton Adult- Relief of acute symptoms: 25 to 50 mg every 6 to 8 h. May impair ability to perform skilled tasks, for example operatng machinery, driving. Fluphenazine Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Maintenance treatment of schizophrenia and other psychoses; mania, postoperatve nausea. Precautons Treatment requires careful monitoring for optmum efect; inital small test dose as adverse efects are prolonged; extrapyramidal symptoms occur frequently; when transferring from oral to depot therapy, dosage by mouth should be reduced gradually; cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders; respiratory disease, epilepsy; acute infectons; pregnancy (Appendix 7c), lactaton (Appendix 7b); renal and hepatc impairment (avoid if severe; Appendices 7a), history of jaundice; leukopenia (blood counts if unexplained fever or infecton); hypothyroidism, myasthenia gravis, prostatc hypertrophy, angle-closure glaucoma; elderly (partcularly in very hot or very cold weather); interactons (Appendix 6a, 6c); alcohol withdrawal, extreme heat. May impair ability to perform skilled tasks, for example operatng machinery, driving. Adverse Efects As for Chlorpromazine (see above), but less sedatng and fewer hypotensive and antcholinergic symptoms; higher incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms (most likely to occur a few hours afer injecton and contnue for about 2 days but may be delayed); systemic lupus erythematosus; pain at injecton site, occasionally erythema, swelling, nodules; tardive dyskinesia, neurological disturbances, blood dyscrasias. Dose Oral Adult-Schizophrenia and other psychoses, mania, psychomotor agitaton and violent behaviour and severe anxiety (adjuvant): initally 1. Elderly or debilitated-Schizophrenia and other psychoses, mania, psychomotor agitaton and violent behaviour and severe anxiety (adjuvant): initally half adult dose. Child-Schizophrenia and other psychoses, mania, psychomotor agitaton and violent behaviour and severe anxiety (adjuvant): initally 25 to 50 µg/kg daily in 2 divided doses (max. Intramuscular injecton Adult- Acute psychotc conditons: initally 2 to 10 mg, subsequent doses every 4 to 8 h according to response (up to every h if necessary) to max.
More precisely super avana 160mg lowest price, it depicts the change in quantity demanded generic super avana 160mg fast delivery, in response to a 1 per cent change in price buy generic super avana 160 mg on-line. Price elasticity, or responsiveness to price, is almost always depicted as negative – a rise in price reduces demand. Responsiveness to the price of cannabis and cocaine is generally extrapolated from general population surveys that provide information on the prevalence of cocaine and cannabis use. This is, in part, because heroin users generally live too chaotic a lifestyle to allow their inclusion in such samples. Research between 1993 and 2006 among clients in needle exchanges in Oslo, estimated a price responsiveness of –0. Logic dictates that if a drug is not physically available, then it cannot be used. As explored previously, a range of factors influence drug use, and while the physical availability of drugs plays a role in their use, it cannot be considered the sole influence on whether they are used. Available evidence suggests that the physical availability of drugs does not impact on levels of drug use. Research has demonstrated that popular media portrayals of pro- alcohol and smoking imagery can influence the uptake of these substances. With the cinematic film industry grossing billion of pounds in profits, and with the globalisation and proliferation of home-based media technologies, there is the potential for film to influence the behaviour of large numbers of people. It was found that cannabis was portrayed in 8 per cent of films, with each film depicting the use of cannabis up to a maximum of 10 times. A 2011 cross-sectional study of over 1,000 13 and 15 year olds from the west of Scotland explored incidents of witnessing drug use in films, and subsequent drug use, and found an association between film exposure to illicit drugs and using cannabis. One explanation is that young people who take drugs not only are more inclined to do this in the company of like-minded friends, but may also share, or develop, similar tastes in cultural representations of drug use, which may in turn determine the kinds of films they choose to watch. Given the evidence that film influences drug use, and the obvious similarities between these two media, it is not unreasonable to assume similar effects occur with television. A 2005 review by Ofcom, which assessed a snapshot of television for content, including drug references, found that overt or implied drug users comprised 0. Her boyfriend Leo blames her for taking the drugs, and himself for supplying them. Gabby says she can’t think straight and wants Leo to ask the doctors for some drugs so she can say yes to turning off the life support machine. Leo says that he cannot believe she is more bothered about her next fix than her dying baby. Source: Ofcom (2005) Smoking, alcohol and drugs on television: a content analysis. Music is related to personal identity, and people often model themselves after musical figures, in terms of dress, behaviour and identity. Reference to drug use in certain types of music is common, and appears to influence drug use. Due to the increasingly globalised trends in music in developed countries, there is a large degree of international crossover in styles of music. Research has suggested that exposure to drug references in music influences cannabis use. American research from 2010 looked specifically at cannabis exposure in popular music and current cannabis use among students aged 14 to 15 years. Public knowledge of the personal lives of media personalities is greater today than it has ever been. Given the relative paucity of evidence examining the frequency of video game use, and how this impacts on behaviour, it is not clear whether video games affect drug use. One American research study has suggested that video game use is positively related to drug use. It is not possible to determine whether use of video games plays a direct role in use of drugs, or if it impacts drug use indirectly, by taking time away from activities that have been shown to have a protective influence on drug use. A 2009 piece of exploratory analysis on drug website viewing among 12 to 18 year olds in America, found that 5. From the limited available evidence, it appears that internet use may influence drug use in a more complex manner than is seen with other forms of popular media. When the internet is mainly used for chat rooms, shopping, entertainment and pornography, an increase in the use of drugs has been found. Summary • Drug use is widely held to be a multifaceted biopsychosocial phenomenon. No single biological, psychological or social factor is exclusively responsible for drug use. Comorbid psychiatric illness and personality type have also been shown to be strongly linked to drug use. The use of drugs activates the mesolimbic dopamine system in the brain, strengthening neural connections, which influences the repetition of drug-related behaviours. Living in a single-parent or step family, substance use among family members, family conflict and poor parental supervision are all indicators for drug use in young people. As discussed in Chapter 6, a key question is what the primary aim of drug policy and legislation should be. At one end of the spectrum, it could simply be to reduce or eliminate illegal drug use, while at the other end it would focus entirely on the health and social problems of the individual drug user, by considering drug dependence as a chronic medical disorder. These are two examples of possible foci: the question is discussed in detail in Chapter 6. Current policy in Britain takes account of both viewpoints, as well as the wider social and economic factors associated with illicit drug use (see Chapters 3 and 6). This chapter examines the development of drug policy in Britain since the mid-19th century and the rationale behind current policy. Opium, and its derivative morphine, were available as patent medicines, in tinctures and other commercial products that were readily accessible through chemists and herbalists.
Although cortcosteroids are associated with bone loss this appears to be dose-related; recent studies have suggested that a low dose of a cortcos- teroid started during the frst two years of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthrits may reduce the rate of joint destruc- ton purchase 160 mg super avana with mastercard. Relatvely high doses of a cortcosteroid order super avana 160 mg with amex, with cyclophosphamide best 160mg super avana, may be needed to control vasculits. Elderly over 60 years- Rheumatoid arthrits and ankylosing spondylits: 300 mg twice daily. Precautons Monitor throughout treatment including blood counts; hepatc impairment (Appendix 7a); renal impairment; elderly (reduce dose); lactaton (Appendix 7b); interactons (Appendix 6c, 6d); pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Patents should be warned to report immediately any signs or symptoms of bone marrow suppression; for example unexplained bruising or bleeding; purpura; infecton; sore throat. Adverse Efects Hypersensitvity reactons requiring immediate and permanent withdrawal include malaise; dizziness; vomitng; diarrhoea; fever; rigors; myalgia; arthralgia; rash; hypotension and intersttal nephrits; dose-related bone marrow suppression; liver impairment; cholestatc jaundice; hair loss and increased suceptbility to infectons and colits in patents also receiving cortcosteroids; nausea; rarely, pancreatts and pneumonits. Dose Oral Acute rheumatoid arthrits including juvenile idiopathic arthrits: 150 mg/day (max. Lefunomide* Pregnancy Category-X Schedule H Indicatons Actve rheumatoid arthrits, psoriatc arthrits. Dose Oral Actve rheumatoid arthrits: Adults- 100 mg once daily as loading dose for 3 days. Precautons Liver disease, kidney disease, heart disease, women of child bearing age, monitor blood counts and blood pressure regularly. Adverse Efects Diarrhoea occurs in approximately 25% of patents, other adverse efect associated are mild alopecia, weight gain, increased blood pressure. Intramuscular, subcutaneous or intravenous route in severe atack under expert medical supervision at a dose of 7. Contraindicatons Lactaton (Appendix 7b); pregnancy (Appendix 7c); immunodefciency syndromes; signifcant pleural efusion or ascites. Patents should be warned to report immedi- ately any signs or symptoms of bone marrow suppression; for example unexplained bruising or bleeding; purpura; infecton; sore throat. Adverse Efects Blood disorders (bone marrow suppression); liver damage; pulmonary toxicity; gastrointestnal disturbances-if stomatts and diarrhoea occur; stop treatment; renal failure; skin reactons; alopecia; osteoporosis; arthralgia; myalgia; ocular irritaton; precipitaton of diabetes. Dose Oral Adult- Severe actve rheumatoid arthrits: initally 125 to 250 mg daily for one month, increased by increments of similar amount at intervals of not less than 4 weeks to usual maintenance dose of 500 to 750 mg daily in divided doses (max 1. If remission sustained for 6 months, reduce daily dose (125 to 150 mg every 12week may be atempted). Elderly- Severe actve rheumatoid arthrits: initally usual 125 mg daily for 1 month. Increase by increments of similar amount at intervals of not less than 4 weeks (max. Child- Severe actve rheumatoid arthrits: maintenance dose of 15 to 20 mg/kg daily, inital amount at intervals of 4 weeks over a period of 3 to 6 months. Precautons Monitor throughout treatment including blood counts and urine tests; renal impairment; avoid concurrent gold; chloroquine or immunosuppressive treatment; avoid oral iron within 2 h of a dose. Patents should be warned to report immediately any signs or symptoms of bone marrow suppression; for example unexplained bruising or bleeding; purpura; infecton; sore throat. Adverse Efects Initally nausea (less of a problem if taken before food or on retring; and if inital dose is only gradually increased); anorexia; fever; taste loss (mineral supplements not recommended); blood disorders including thrombocytopenia; neutropenia; agranulocytosis and aplastc anaemia; proteinuria; rarely, haematuria (withdraw immediately); haemolytc anaemia; nephrotc syndrome; lupus erythematosus- like syndrome; myasthenia-like syndrome; polymyosits (rarely, with cardiac involvement); dermatomyosits; mouth ulcers; stomatts; alopecia; bronchiolits and pneumonits; pemphigus; glomerulonephrits (Goodpasture syndrome) and erythema multforme (Stevens-Johnson syndrome); male and female breast enlargement; rash (early rash disappears on withdrawing treatment-reintroduce at lower dose and increase gradually; late rash is more resistant- either reduce dose or withdraw treatment). Dose Oral Acute rheumatoid arthrits: Adult- initally 500 mg daily increase by 500 mg at interval of one week (max. Contraindicatons Hypersensitvity to salicylates and sulfonamides; severe renal impairment; child under 2 years; porphyria. Patents should be warned to report immediately any signs or symptoms of bone marrow suppression; for example unexplained bruising or bleeding; purpura; infecton; sore throat. Adverse Efects Nausea; diarrhoea; headache; loss of appe- tte; fever; blood disorders (including Heinz body anaemia; megaloblastc anaemia; leu- kopenia; neutropenia; thrombocytopenia); hypersensitvity reactons (including rash; urt- caria; erythema multforme (Stevens-Johnson syndrome); exfoliatve dermatts; epidermal necrolysis; pruritus; photosensitzaton; ana- phylaxis; serum sickness; intersttal nephrits; lupus erythematosus-like syndrome); lung complicatons (including eosinophilia; fbros- ing alveolits); ocular complicatons (includ- ing periorbital oedema); stomatts; parotts; ataxia; aseptc meningits; vertgo; tnnitus; alopecia; peripheral neuropathy; insomnia; depression; hallucinatons; kidney reactons (including proteinuria; crystalluria; haematu- ria); oligospermia; rarely, acute pancreatts; hepatts; urine may be coloured orange. Salicylates, including acetylsalicylic acid are also not suitable because they may increase plasma-urate concentra- tons. It does not induce fuid retenton and can there- fore be given to patents with heart failure; it can also be given to patents receiving antcoagulants. Chronic Gout: For long-term control of gout in patents who have frequent atacks, the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol may be used to reduce producton of uric acid. It should not be used to treat an acute atack since it may prolong it indefnitely. Treatment for chronic gout should not be started untl afer an acute atack has completely subsided, usually 2-3 weeks. If an acute atack develops during treatment for chronic gout, then allopurinol should contnue at the same dosage and the acute atack should be treated in its own right. Treatment for chronic gout must be contnued indefnitely to prevent further atacks of gout. Dose Oral Adult- Initally 100 mg daily afer food, thereafer adjust according to uric acid concentraton. Contraindicatons Acute gout; if an acute atack occurs while receiving allopurinol; contnue prophylaxis and treat atack separately. Precautons Ensure adequate fuid intake of 2-3 litres daily; lactaton (Appendix 7b); renal and hepatc impairment (Appendices 7d and 7a); withdraw treatment if rash occurs; reintroduce if rash is mild but discontnue immediately if it recurs; interactons (Appendix 6c, 6d); pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Adverse Efects Rash (see precautons above); hypersensitvity reactons occur rarely, and include fever; lymphadenopathy; arthralgia; eosinophilia; erythema multforme (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) or toxic epidermal necrolysis; vasculits; hepatts; renal impairment. Colchicine* Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Acute gout; short-term prophylaxis during inital therapy with allopurinol. The drug must be stopped promptly at the frst sign of loose stools and symptomatc treatment must be given for diarrhoea.