By E. Brant. State University of New York College at Farmingdale.

The uric acid excre- tion rises suddenly pyridium 200mg free shipping, uric acid precipitates in renal Renal Hemorrhage tubules and acute oliguric renal failure ensues buy pyridium 200 mg online. Con- Renal hemorrhage can be caused iatrogenically dur- tributing factors include excretion of an acid urine ing endoscopy if improper technique is used buy cheap pyridium 200 mg line. Spor- secondary to metabolic acidosis, dehydration and the adic renal hemorrhage in male turkeys and Psittaci- use of uricosuric drugs (adrenocorticosteroids). It can also occur as a taining a high alkaline urine flow by infusing manni- complication of renal pathology (eg, tumor). The bird showed signs of depression 18 hours after the third dose of allopurinol was given. A diagnosis of renal tubular nephrosis Allopurinol caused by oxypurinol, xanthine or uric acid deposits 24 A recent study has demonstrated that oral admini- in the tubuli was made. Intravenous and subcutane- stration of allopurinol does not prevent the occur- ous saline, corticosteroids and furosemide (1 mg/kg) rence of physiologic postprandial hyperuricemia in were administered twice daily in an attempt to re- Red-tailed Hawks. Urine production was restored administration of allopurinol caused a severe hype- and, after 24 hours, plasma uric acid concentration ruricemia and induced gout in three out of six, clini- had decreased to 3,814 µmol/l. Plasma uric to reduce plasma uric acid concentration in man with acid had decreased to 1,639µmol/l 72 hours later. The results of this study seem to bird fully recovered after two weeks of intensive indicate that allopurinol is contraindicated for the treatment with intravenous fluids and supportive treatment of hyperuricemia in Red-tailed Hawks. Assessment of fluid re- therapy based on single observations in individual quirements can be based on this general outline but birds must be cautiously applied to the management must be monitored by daily weight determination of any avian disease (including gout) until research and observation for clinical signs that would indicate can determine that a therapy is safe. In patients that are anorectic and not receiving assisted feedings, some The extreme renal tubular nephrosis observed fol- allowance should be made to account for tissue ca- lowing allopurinol administration in Red-tailed tabolism. Sodium, potas- purinol, the relatively insoluble and nephrotoxic end- sium and protein intake should be discontinued and product of allopurinol. Alternatively, renal damage calories should be given in the form of fat and carbo- might have been caused by the deposition of xanthine hydrates. Furosemide of uric acid, and concentrations of these substances should be used in an attempt to restore or increase increase when the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, al- urine flow and potassium excretion. High-pressure liquid In the polyuric phase that follows the anuric phase, chromatography is necessary to determine which fluid and electrolyte balance should be carefully metabolic product is being deposited in the tubules. Intravenous and subcutaneous in- the character of the deposits in the tubules, because fusions with lactated Ringer’s solution should be they are generally washed away during preparation continued on a daily basis. Prednisolone has been used in budgeri- Products Mentioned in the Text gars with renal tumors. Neumann U, Kummerfeld N: Neo- test for the differentiation of polyuric nand Enke Verlag, 1968. Leg paresis in a black palm cockatoo and visceral gout induced by allopuri- findings with special consideration of 2. Avian Pathol 12:353- erigar - A review of cases seen at the Wildl Med 23(1):122-126, 1992. Proc Assoc of Avian Vet, analysis of urine in racing pigeons medizinische Gesellschaft e. Keller P: Enzymaktivitäten in Or- cial Reference to the Racing Pigeon, avian urinalysis and case reports. Am J Physiol ids with special attention for clinical Proc 1st Intl Conf Zoo & Avian Med, Vet, Houston, 1988, pp 207-218. Long S: Acid-base balance and uri- Renal mucoid materials in pigeons demic Press, 1983, pp 107-133. Conversely, chronic rhinitis and air sacculitis can fulminate for many years with subtle clinical changes. The difficulty in distinguishing between clinical signs originating from the upper versus the 22 lower respiratory system makes the diagnosis and treatment of these problems challenging. Respira- tory health is best maintained by frequent exposure to fresh air and sunlight, a proper plane of nutrition and flighted exercise. Harrison ate subtle changes in posture, wing position, respira- tory rate and respiratory pattern that may indicate an abnormality. A bird uses its intercostal muscula- ture to expand and depress its chest, creating a “bel- lows” action that moves air into and out of the respi- ratory system. An increase in abdominal effort or head movement may be recognized in association with increased respira- tion following exercise, but should return to normal within minutes of ceasing exertional activity. Lung and lower respiratory tract problems are usually associated with a rhyth- mic jerking of the tail (tail-bob). A bird in severe respiratory distress may also move its head forward in an effort to increase air intake. If the respiratory problem is associated with excessive fluid produc- tion, bubbling and gurgling sounds are common on both inspiration and expiration (Table 22. Overt signs of respiratory disease are easy to identify and include oculonasal discharge, stained or matted feathers around the nares, sneezing, coughing, dysp- nea or audible inspirations or expirations (Figure 22. Changes in pitch or vocalization of the patient may indicate problems in the glottis, trachea or syr- inx. The area was thoroughly cleaned and severely matted Dyspnea may be caused by chronic lung or air sac feathers were removed. The discharge was found to be associated consolidation or by an acute reduction in the amount with conjunctivitis and not sinusitis. The bird was successfully managed by fre- induced by protracted respiratory disease, it is usu- quently flushing the eyes with sterile saline. Acute dyspnea in an appar- ently healthy bird usually results from exposure to The first areas to examine for respiratory disease are aerosolized toxins, dislocation and movement of the nares and surrounding tissues. Unilateral or plaques in the trachea (from malnutrition or infec- bilateral diseases of the upper respiratory tract are tious agents) or aspiration of foreign bodies (particu- indicated by matted or mildly stained feathers larly seed husks or cage litter material). Dyspnea around the nostrils, occluded nares, nasal discharge may also be caused by rhinoliths, air sac granulomas, or a growth or change in size of the nasal opening.

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Die Bedeutung der deutschen Arztevereine fur das wissenschafliche Leben generic pyridium 200 mg with amex, die medizinische Versorgung und soziale Belange der Stadt St order pyridium 200mg mastercard. Leipzig (Germany): Universitat Leipzig pyridium 200 mg fast delivery, Karl-Sudhof- Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschafen; 2000 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. La storia e la flosofa della scienza, della tecnologia e della medicina = Te history and philosophy of science, technology and medicine [bibliography on the Internet]. Washington: George Washington University Medical Center, Center to Improve Care of the Dying; [cited 2006 Nov 1]. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Parts of Books on the Internet Te general format for a reference to part of an Internet book, including punctuation: 1442 Citing Medicine Examples of Citations to Parts of Books on the Internet Separately identifed portions of a book may be cited. Chapters, sections, tables, charts, graphs, photographs, appendixes, and the like are considered parts of books when they are written or compiled by the authors of the book. Tey are contributions when the book has an overall editor or editors and the individual chapters or other components in the book are written by various authors, usually called contributors. In general, most modern texts have standardized to three types of parts: fgures, tables, and appendixes. However, other names may be found for parts, including section, chart, graph, box, and photograph. Because a reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication: • Begin a reference to a part of a book with information about the book; follow it with the information about the part. See also Chapter 2C Parts of Books for additional examples of parts to books in print or in microform (microflm, microfche). Te primary diference between citing a part of a print book and an Internet book is in expressing the location (pagination) of the part. Screen size, font used, and printers vary greatly, but the purpose is to give an indication of the length of the part. Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet 1443 • Use the word "about" before the length indicator when the number is calculated. Medical texts frequently contain charts, fgures, and other illustrative material reproduced with permission from other sources. Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Books on the Internet Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R afer the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O afer the name means it is optional. Risunok 6, Parartema 4, • Romanize or translate titles in character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese). Ichiran-hiyo 3, or [Table 3, ] • Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet 1445 Box 72 continued from previous page. In this case, give whatever name is used for the part and follow it with a comma and the title. Parts of a book on the Internet with equal text in two or more languages Title for a Part of a Book on the Internet (required) General Rules for Title • Enter the title of the part as it appears in the book Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet 1447 • Capitalize only the frst word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets • End title information with a semicolon and a space Specific Rules for Title • Titles for parts not in English • Titles for parts in more than one language • Titles for parts containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or other special character • No title appears Box 76. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet 1449 Box 77 continued from previous page. Veterinary public health and control of zoonoses in developing countries = Sante publique veterinaire et controle des zoonoses dans les pays en developpement = Salud publica veterinaria y control de zoonosis en Paises en Desarrollo [Internet]. Titles for parts containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or other special character. Figure 3, Infuence of seed extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to diferent doses of γ-radiation; may become Figure 3, Infuence of seed extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to diferent doses of gamma-radiation; • If a title contains superscripts or subscripts that cannot be reproduced with the type fonts available, place the superscript or subscript in parentheses Box 78 continues on next page... Occasionally a part does not have a formal title, only a legend (explanatory text) for the table, fgure, appendix, or other part. Parts of a book on the Internet with equal text in two or more languages Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet 1451 Date of Update/Revision for a Part of a Book on the Internet (required) General Rules for Date of Update/Revision • Parts of books may be updated or revised between editions or versions • Begin update/revision information with a lef square bracket • Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated and modifed • Always give the year of update/revision • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. Look for the date accompanied by such words as updated, modifed, revised, reviewed: • At the top, bottom, or sidebar of the frst screen for the part or the bottom of the last screen of the part • In the source code for the part if it is displayed by the Web browser Box 81. Parts of a book on the Internet with date of update/revision Date of Citation for a Part of a Book on the Internet (required) General Rules for Date of Citation • Always include the date the part of a book was seen on the Internet • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5 • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the frst three letters, such as Jan Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet 1453 • If a date of update/revision is given, place the date of citation afer it and follow both dates with a right square bracket • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets • End date information with a semicolon placed outside the closing bracket Specific Rules for Date of Citation • Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation Box 84. Various words are used to show that the content of a part of a book has been changed. Squeezed: why rising exposure to health care costs threatens the health and fnancial well-being of American families [Internet]. When this occurs, give the total number of pages of the part you are citing, placed in square brackets, such as [5 p. Appendix 3C, Description of model output tables and graphs; [cited 2006 Dec 15]; [7 p. If a video clip, videocast , or podcast is part of a book: • Place the word Video, Videocast, or Podcast in square brackets followed by a comma and a space • Enter the title of the part, followed by a semicolon and a space • Give the date of update/revision (if known) and the date of citation in square brackets, separated by a semicolon and a space • End date information with a semicolon and a space • Give extent as the number of minutes needed to view/listen, placed in square brackets • Abbreviate minutes to min. Standard citation to a part of a book on the Internet with traditional page numbers for location 2. Hypertextbook of regional anaesthesia for obstetrics: an international perspective [Internet].

It is especially water supply cheap pyridium 200mg without prescription, fill prescriptions and perform routine important to maintain good communication with the procedures such as restraining purchase 200mg pyridium overnight delivery, medicating and referring veterinarian if a client lives in another area grooming birds order 200mg pyridium free shipping. All staff members should be encour- and the referring veterinarian will need to evaluate aged to have their own companion birds in order to the effect of therapy or to provide further medica- better relate to the clients and their birds. Treatment and follow-up visits should be done critical that staff members’ and clinic birds be locally whenever possible. If the ambient temperature is less than 60-75°F, it is recommended that the car be pre-warmed as well. Likewise, if ambient temperature exceeds 90°F, care must be taken to prevent hyperthermia. A bird brought into the hospital on its owner’s arm is an accident waiting to happen (Figure 7. There- fore, it should be hospital policy that all animals be maintained in an enclosure while in the reception area. If it is not possible to bring a bird’s enclosure, a small animal carrier can be modified with the addi- tion of a perch. It is helpful for the staff to introduce themselves to new clients and to tell them what to expect during the office visit. The technician should weigh the bird, discuss husbandry with cli- ents and assist with restraint during the examina- tion. At many clinics, a client can make an appoint- ment with the veterinary technician for routine grooming procedures such as wing clips, weight monitoring and beak and nail trims. Client information about the diet and home environment information brochures are available in the waiting room and in the examination room (courtesy of Cathy Johnson-Delaney). The technician should Communicating with the Client take a Polaroid snapshot of the client and bird for the When a client calls for an appointment, the recep- bird’s medical record. The client should be provided a tionist must instruct the client on the proper way to folder-type health record with a pocket to maintain transport the bird to the clinic so that an evaluation receipts and examination certificates. The serve as a reminder that birds need the same kind of water dish should be emptied before transport, but routine preventive medical care as other pets. The client should also be instructed to collect are recommended with emphasis on detecting sub- several fresh fecal samples at home by placing plastic clinical problems (see Chapter 8). The samples should be folded give the new client a “New Bird Kit” on the initial in the plastic and refrigerated until transport to the visit. A paper towel placed over the enclosure sub- folder, client education materials, a hemostatic strate will help identify fresh droppings produced agent, a telephone sticker with the phone numbers of during the trip to the hospital. The client should also the clinic and recommended emergency clinic, sam- bring previous medical records, samples of the nor- ples of recommended avian foods and subscription mal diet and samples of any abnormal discharges. Hospitalization Protocol Clients apprehensive about hospital- izing their birds may feel more at ease if they are introduced to the staff members who will be caring for the bird and shown where their bird will be housed. Additionally, birds being provided such as heat, light, music transported from one area of the hospital to another should be placed back in an enclosure and visibility of humans. Visitation to prevent accidental releases and injuries (right) (courtesy of Cathy Johnson-Delaney). This helps emphasize the clinic’s com- to its family and becomes depressed when separated mitment to personalized attention for each patient. On the other hand, if the The medical record system used in most small ani- bird has a contagious disease or is recovering from a mal clinics can be modified for avian patients. A serious injury or surgical procedure, the excitement problem-oriented checklist works well for avian and activity associated with a visit may be contrain- cases. In any case, clients should be encouraged to form should be included in the folder sent home with call during specified times to receive updates on the the client. Two copies Before a bird is discharged from the hospital, the should be made so that one remains in the clinic technician should instruct the client on how to ad- records and the other goes with the client. It is usually advisable that written small animal practices can be easily adapted for home care instructions, the hospital bill and the avian patients, including modifying reminder forms recheck appointment be discussed prior to reuniting to list avian procedures. Diagnostic software pack- the bird and the client to prevent the client from ages for the avian patient are under development. Another proven way to maintain a positive client A phone call the day after discharge allows the vet- relationship is by communicating with them through erinarian to evaluate the patient’s condition and the use of “Welcome to the practice” cards, sympathy gives the client an opportunity to ask questions. The survey should potential problems with diet and husbandry to daily be short and include multiple choice questions and assessment of a hospitalized bird’s condition, com- space for written comments regarding clinic facili- munication with the client is essential. If a bird must ties, staff, telephone courtesies, pricing and medical be hospitalized, the client should be given a written treatment. A return envelope will encourage client estimate of the medical plan and costs, and a hospital participation. Occasionally clients will request health certificates in order to transport birds between states or coun- Birds that are boarded at a veterinary clinic must be tries. Most airlines are now refusing to transport kept isolated (different air space with different care- wild-caught birds, and many domestic carriers are takers) from ill birds as well as from other boarding refusing to ship companion birds on the grounds that birds from different households. Clinics with limited it is difficult to differentiate between domestically space may board birds from a single household at one raised and imported birds. Establishing a bird-sitting service using clinic companion birds within the United States will spec- staff or outside individuals works well and decreases ify the type of carrier they will accept and the condi- the risk of exposing birds to infectious agents. If tions of release from liability that must be author- bird-sitters visit more than one household a day, they ized. According to aircraft manufacturers and airline must take precautions to prevent disease transfer engineers, temperature ranges in the cargo bins, between homes. Newer-generation jets (eg, 757s) generally have warmer temperatures in the cargo bins and therefore Accommodating the Avian are more comfortable for animals. Patient Carrier specifications for international shipment are set by the International Air Transport Association, and many airlines use these standards for domestic flights as well. It is advisable to be familiar with In order to transform a traditional small animal these carrier specifications and to contact the state clinic into an “avian friendly” clinic, a number of veterinarian regarding what is considered a properly modifications should be considered.

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Stem cells by strict definition over the lifetime of the animal must be able to proliferate order 200 mg pyridium overnight delivery, show self-renewal buy 200mg pyridium with amex, produce progeny with multilineage characteristics cheap pyridium 200mg fast delivery, and divide when injured. Progenitor cells refer to cells with a more restricted potential than stem cells, and precursor cells refer to cells within a given developmental pathway. The presence of neural stem cells in the adult brain has established the possibility for using the mature brain as a source of precursor cells for transplantation and helps to establish new therapy directions for neurological injury and disease. In fact, as our understanding of stem cell neurobiology grows, it may be possible to control the proliferation and migration of such cells into areas of the nervous system affected by the diseases discussed in this chapter. The notion of self-repair in the brain is now visible at the basic research level. The potential growth factors governing the commitment and differentiation of the neuronal lineage are indicated. More- over, these newly generated neurons had also made connections to their appropri- ate target. Multipotent stem cell proliferation and differentiation can be regulated by neu- rotrophic factors. When growth factors are added in sequence to neural stem cells, they regulate whether the cells will acquire neuronal or glial characteristics. One sector of gene therapy research focuses on a neural-stem-cell-based strat- egy. With the capability of differentiating along multiple cell lineages, stem cells may be very effective for the delivery of therapeutic gene prod- ucts throughout the brain or spinal cord. The enzyme deficiency in this mouse model causes lysosomal accumulations of undegraded glycosominoglycans in the brain and other tissues that results in fatal degenerative changes. Similar therapeutic paradigms are also being evaluated for other inherited neurogenetic diseases that are characterized by an absence of discrete gene products. Engineered cells and progenitors are also being grafted into mouse models of hexosaminadase deficiencies causing Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease. Clones of stem cells or prog- enitor cells are used extensively to study aspects of differentiation along neuronal and glial lineages. These types of progenitor cell lines have been useful in the iden- tification of molecules and neurotrophic factors that initiate and modulate differ- entiation at specific developmental time points. The myc family of protooncogenes consist of a number of well-characterized members including c-myc,N-myc, and L-myc. This retrovirus induces a number of carcinomas in addition to the leukemic disorder myelocytomatosis (myc) in birds and can transform primary cells in tissue culture. The transformation of cells from the developing nervous system with a retrovirus expressing v-myc have revealed extraordinary characteristics. In culture, progenitor cells immortalized with the v-myc oncogene divide continuously. However, when removed from the culture environment and transplanted back into the nervous system of laboratory animals, these v-myc-immortalized cells withdraw from the cell cycle and undergo terminal differentiation. In addition, certain neural progenitor cells generated with v-myc not only stop dividing in the animals’ brain, but the cells also undergo site-specific differentiation. Several hundred grafts of neural cells carrying the v-myc gene have been studied in laboratory animals in numerous regions of the central and peripheral nervous system, and not a single graft has shown continued proliferation (tumor growth). Hence, the cells with this oncogene fall into a special category with highly desired characteristics in consideration of cell replacement strategies for therapeutic restoration of nervous system function. At this time, the precise mechanism(s) that override the expression of the v-myc onco- gene product and pull the cells from mitotic cycling are not known. Alzheimer’s represents the single greatest cause of mental dete- rioration in older people, affecting approximately 4 million in the United States and 300,000 in Canada. The German physi- cian Alois Alzheimer first described this condition in 1907 as a case presentation of a 51-year-old woman whose symptoms included depression, hallucinations, demen- tia, and, upon postmortem examination, a “paucity of cells in the cerebral cortex. Although the majority of individuals are in their sixties, Alzheimer’s can develop at a younger age. No matter when a person is affected, the condition is always progressive and degenerative. Formerly self-reliant people even- tually become dependent upon others for routine daily activities. Although there are a number of promising clues, the definitive cause of Alzheimer’s has not been determined. Scientists recognize that there are two forms of Alzheimer’s—familial and sporadic. The familial (sometimes referred to as early- onset Alzheimer’s) stream is known to be entirely inherited. Mutations at all three of these loci lead to increased production of the amyloid polypeptide Ab42. Abnormal phosphorylation events lead to the deposition of Ab42 in the neuropil and blood vessel walls and may be the initiating factor in Alzheimer’s. It progresses faster than the sporadic, late-onset form of the disorder, which generally develops after age 65. In Alzheimer’s, axons and dendrites in the brain neurophil degenerate and disrupt the normal passage of signals between cells. These focal areas of degenera- tion (senile plaques) have specific cytological characteristics. The plaques are com- posed of degenerating neuronal processes associated with extracellular deposits of amyloid peptides. In addition, changes also occur inside the neurons, leading to cytoskeletal disruption and the accumulation of abnormal filament proteins in twisted arrays called neurofibrillary tangles. Tangles consist predominantly of abnormal phosphorylated forms of tau—a protein that binds to microtubules as part of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Acetylcholine and somatostatin are the principal neurotransmitters that are depleted in Alzheimer’s.

Cinoared to the baseline pyridium 200 mg low cost, both groups showed significant improvement in all measurements best 200mg pyridium, more obvious in first 4 weeks buy 200 mg pyridium fast delivery. Myanmar Traditional Medicine paste (Ahtoo-lane-hsay) has significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in osteoarthritis knee cases. It can be recommended as an effective, safe, and easy to administer inexpensive alternative therapy for osteoarthritis knee effects of long term analgesic therapy. Comparative study on quantitative determination of eugenol in the essential oil of Piper betle Linn. The physical properties such as moisture, total nitrogen content, total alcohol soluble matter, total water soluble matter and microchemical tests on alcohol and water soluble matters were determined. The yield percent were determined depending on the method and quality of betel leaf. The physicochemical characteristics were determined by standard methods of analysis for vegetable oil and fats. The elemental contents of betel leaf were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The betel leaf decoction was prepared according to the procedures usually used by traditional practitioners. The type of sugars, the amount of free reducing sugars and the amount of minerals of the betel leaf decoction were determined. The comparison between the betel leaf decoction and the oral rehydration salt solution was also determined. The present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-plaque properties of Ixora coccinea Linn. The present study was performed on sixty young subjects with chronic gingivitis at the Institute of Nursing, Yangon. All subjects were randomly divided into two equal groups with equal sex distribution. Clinical examination and recording of the scores was obtained weekly up to one month. Mean scores of gingival inflammation, bleeding on probing and plaque accumulation were significantly reduced in both groups. Cultural beliefs and traditional medicine utilization in Myanmar: A model assessment. Thaw Zin; Sein Win; Khin Chit; Tin Mg Lay; Kyi Kyi; Moe Moe Aye; Myint Thuzar Thant; Mya Mya Moe. Four cultural models are recognized, cultural deficit, cultural conflict, mainstream conformity and cultural distrust models, to exist in a population having different behaviour towards available health care services. To understand the influence of cultural characteristics on traditional medicine utilization, 2 areas; Yangon Division having the least culture beliefs’ influence, and Southern Shan state having diverse ethnic minorities, different culture beliefs and healing practices were compared. However, the majourity of minor ailments encountered were successfully taken care of with available health care facilities, whether it is allopathic or traditional. The main influencing model was the mainstream conformity model where deep-rooted beliefs in indigenous practices existed, followed by cultural deficit model where lack of knowledge on a health care system and medicine (21. Proper health education, exchange of knowledge between different cultures and involvement of ethnic minorities as health providers within the existing health system may help resolve these differences. The chloroform and alcohol extracts of Desmodium triquetrum and Acorus calamus and the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of Alpinia galanga contain flavonoids. These are possibly the active principles responsible for their anti-bacterial activity. Khin Tar Yar Myint; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Win Myint; May Aye Than; Aye Than; Win Win Maw; Thandar Myint. Medicinal plants and herbal drugs are being more utilized for health purposes throughout the world, nowadays. In Myanmar also, many of the traditional remedies are accepted and used by a large segment of the population. Generally people believe that herbal medicine are effective and have no toxic effect. Kyaung-yo-they or Kyaung- hsay-pin is one of the well known Myanmar medicinal plants used for bronchodilating and mucolytic activities. This plant was reported to contain an exciting compound known as cyanogenic glycoside stated in some literatures. In order to prove the presence of dangerous cyanogenic glycoside in Kyaung-hsay-pin, a highly sensitive color reaction test for cyanogenic glycoside was carried out on the various fresh and dried parts of the plant specimens. It was clearly detected that higher content of cyanogenic glycoside contained in fresh specimen but a little amount in dried parts. Expressed juice of leaves was also tested for its acute toxicity administering orally to mice and rats. May Aye Than; Khine Khine Lwin; Ohnmar Than; Phyu Phyu Win; Nu Nu Win; Aye Aye Mon, Mi; Mar Mar Myint; Ei Ei Soe. As defined in The Food Drugs and Cosmetic Acts, the term adulteration involves the content of a product, such as the addition of substances that make it inferior, impure or not genuine and a product that has unprescribed colouring substance or the colouring substance in excess of the prescribed limits. Adulterated foods were dangerous because it may be toxic, can affect health and it could deprive nutrients essential for proper growth and development. Therefore it was needed to detect by using chemical and pharmacognostical standard tests. Nine brands of chilli and turmeric powders, three brands of blacks pepper and cumin powders samples were collected from various markets in Yangon.

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Gastric carcinoma is most common in which one of the listed geo- graphic locations? Workup reveals that his anemia is the result of bleeding from a colon cancer located in the sigmoid colon order 200 mg pyridium with visa. Which of the listed markers would be most useful for future follow-up of this patient for the evaluation of possible metastatic disease from his colon cancer? A smear of material obtained from one of these vesicles reveals several multinucleated giant cells with intranuclear inclusions and ground- glass nuclei order pyridium 200 mg with mastercard. A 19-year-old man living in New Mexico presents to a local clinic after a 1-day history of fever cheap 200mg pyridium otc, myalgia, chills, headache, and malaise. He complains of vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, tachypnea, and a pro- ductive cough. He is treated with antibiotics, but the next day he develops acute respiratory failure with cardiopulmonary arrest and dies. Postmortem examination of the lungs reveals intraalveolar edema, rare hyaline mem- branes, and a few interstitial lymphoid aggregates. A 6-year-old boy develops a facial rash that has the appearance of a slap to the face. The rash, which is composed of small red spots, subse- quently involves the upper and lower extremities. This boy also has arthralgia and suddenly develops a life-threatening aplastic crisis of the bone marrow. A 33-year-old male in an underdeveloped country presents with a markedly edematous right foot that has multiple draining sinuses. A Gram stain from one of these draining sinuses reveals gram-positive filamentous bacteria that are partially acid-fast. A 38-year-old male presents with right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, and a peripheral neutrophilia. An emergency appendectomy is performed, but the appendix is found to be grossly unremarkable. Instead, the lymph nodes surrounding the appendix are found to be enlarged, inflamed, and matted together. Which one of the listed organisms is the most likely cause of these abnormalities? Bacillus anthracis General PathologyGeneral Pathology QuestionsQuestions 6767 105. A 30-year-old male presents with multiple soft, raised, beefy-red superficial ulcers in his left groin. A histologic section from an enlarged lymph node that is stained with a silver stain reveals characteristic Dono- van bodies within macrophages. A 44-year-old female diabetic living on Martha’s Vineyard develops the sudden onset of chills and fever. Her symptoms result from destruction of erythrocytes by a particular organism, which was transmitted by the hard-shell tick (ixodid). A detailed history reveals that he also has severe pain with urination (nongonococcal urethritis). A 35-year-old female who lives in the southeastern portion of the United States and likes to hike in the Great Smoky Mountains presents with a spotted rash that started on her extremities and spread to her trunk and face. A biopsy of one of these lesions reveals necrosis and reactive hyperplasia of blood vessels. A 21-year-old college athlete presents with a nagging cough and a 20-lb weight loss. In addition to the chronic cough and weight loss, his main symptoms consist of fever, night sweats, and chest pains. A microscopic section from one of the enlarged lymph nodes that is stained with an acid-fast stain reveals the presence of numerous (“too many to count”) acid-fast organ- isms. An adult migrant farm worker in the San Joaquin Valley of California has been hospitalized for 2 weeks with progressive lassitude, fever of unknown origin, and skin nodules on the lower extremities. A biopsy of one of the deep dermal nodules shown in the photomicrograph below reveals the presence of a. Sections of tissue infected with Blastomyces would be expected to show organisms with a. The india ink prep reveals through negative staining that these yeasts have a capsule. A patient who presents to the hospital with severe headaches devel- ops convulsions and dies. At autopsy the brain grossly has a “Swiss cheese” appearance due to the presence of numerous small cysts containing milky fluid. A 27-year-old male develops acute diarrhea consisting of foul- smelling, watery stools, along with severe abdominal cramps and flatu- lence, after returning from a trip to the Caribbean. The most common sign or symptom produced by the organism seen in the associated photomicrograph of a distal colonic biopsy is a. Soon after returning from a trip to Costa Rica, a 41-year-old female develops recurrent chills and high fever that recur every 48 h. Examination of her peripheral blood reveals red granules (Schüffner’s dots) in enlarged, young erythrocytes. Which one of the listed organisms is most likely to have produced her signs and symptoms? An apathetic male infant in an underdeveloped country is found to have peripheral edema, a “moon” face, and an enlarged, fatty liver.

The hepatotoxic effect in animal model was induced by acetaminophen in dose of 1g/kg body weight order 200 mg pyridium with mastercard. When comparing with acetaminophen only received group and different doses of extracts plus acetaminophen received groups buy pyridium 200 mg with visa, there were no statistically significant difference (p value >0 discount pyridium 200mg free shipping. In histopathological changes, distilled water only received group showed normal liver architecture. Less degenerative, necrotic and fibrotic changes were seen in extracts plus acetaminophen received groups when comparing with acetaminophen only received group. In acute toxicity study, there was 80% lethality with 16g/kg of aqueous extract of leaves of Vitex trifolia Linn. The present study suggests that aqueous extracts of leaves of Vitex trifolia Linn. High-throughput screening of herbal plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using microplate alamar blue assay in Myanmar. In this assay, the anti-tuberculosis activity was detected by using the Alamar blue dye to the broth cultures with drugs in 96-well microplates. Hence, the findings in this study were the first report exhibiting antimycobacterial activity. It could also be further extended to determine the anti-tuberculous drug susceptibility and resistance of clinical mycobacterium isolates. Scientific evaluation of hypoglycemic activity was tested on adrenaline induced hyperglycemic rabbits model. After one week, Lingzhi 3g/kg body weight was administered with distilled water and the blood glucose level were again determined at 0hr, 1hr, 2hr, 3hr and 4hr after administration of Lingzhi. The results showed that blood glucose levels of adrenaline induced hyperglycemic rabbits were 350. The study indicated that the Lingzhi powder significantly lowered the blood glucose level at 2hr (p< 0. Phytochemical analysis showed that Lingzhi contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannis and phytosterols. Hypoglycemic activity and related chemical constituents of Premna integrifolia Linn. Khin Tar Yar Myint; Thaw Zin; May Aye Than; Myint Myint Khine; Win Myint; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Mya Aye; Thandar Myint. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of Premna integrifolia Linn. Blood glucose levels of rats at various time intervals were measured by glucometer. All extracts showed blood glucose lowering effect, with leave extracts possessing hypoglycemic activity at 1hr (p<0. The most active stem bark extracts was further fractionated to chloroform-soluble and insoluble portions, and hypoglycemic activity tested. The present study was planned to observe the hypoglycemic activity of the ethanolic extract of the bark of Acacia catechu Willd. In this study, ethanolic extraction, acute toxicity test general pharmacological screening tests, test of hypoglycemic activity and phytochemical analysis of the bark of Acacia catechu were carried out. The dried powder of the bark of Acacia catechu was extracted with 90% alcohol to get ethanolic extract. In acute toxicity study, albino mice were used to determine the degree of toxicity to the administration of ethanolic extract but no toxic signs were observed at the maximal feasible dose of 16g/kg body weight. General pharmacological screening tests of ethanolic extract of the back of Acacia catechu had been done using albino mice but there was no abnormality regarding central and autonomic nervous system. Adrenaline-induced hyperglycemic albino rats were used to determine the hypoglycemic activity. The results after giving the ethanolic extract of the bark of Acacia catechu in the dose of 1. The results also showed that the hypoglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of the bark of is in dose-dependent relationship and similar to that of standard drug, glibenclamide (4mg/kg). Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of the bark of revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin, α-amino acids, glycosides, saponins, resin, phenolic compounds and carbohydrate. According to these results, it is concluded that ethanolic extract of the bark of Acacia catechu possess the significant hypoglycemic activity on adrenaline-induced hyperglycemic rat model. The purpose of present study was to evaluate scientifically the hypoglycemic activity of Murraya koenigii Spreng. In this study, aqueous extraction, acute toxicity, pharmacological screening test, phytochemical constituents and hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Pyin-daw-thein were carried out. Six adrenaline-induced hyperglycemic albino rats were used to study the hypoglycemic activity. The dried powder of leaves of Pyin-daw-thein was extracted with water used to prepare aqueous extract. In acute toxicity study in mice, it was observed that aqueous extract of Pyin-daw-thein was not toxic up to the maximal feasible dose of (16g/kg) body weight. General pharmacology screening test of aqueous extract of Pyin-daw-thein had shown no abnormal changes. Phytochemical analysis of leaves of Pyin-daw-thein showed that they have alkaloid, triterpene, tannin, resin, glycoside, polyphenol, carbohydrate, amino acids and reducing sugar. In observation of aqueous extract of Pyin-daw-thein at the three different doses, aqueous extract 2g/kg and 4g/kg showed significant hypoglycemic effect at 2hr (p<0. The comparison between hypoglycemic effects of aqueous extract of Pyin-daw-thein and standard drug, glibenclamide (4mg/kg), showed that they have similar hypoglycemic effect. The purpose of present study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of Syzygium cumini (L. In this study, aqueous extraction, acute toxicity, pharmacological screening test, phytochemical constituents and hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Tha-bye were carried out.

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